Price is that the value that’s put to a product or service and is that the results of a posh set of calculations, research and understanding, and risk-taking ability. A pricing strategy takes under consideration segments, ability to pay, market conditions, competitor actions, trade margins and input costs, amongst others. it’s targeted at the defined customers and against competitors.
Description: There are several pricing strategies:
Premium pricing: the high price is employed as a defining criterion. Such pricing strategies add segments and industries where a robust competitive advantage exists for the corporate. Example: Porche in cars and Gillette in blades.
Penetration pricing: price is artificially low to realize market share quickly. this is often done when a replacement product is being launched. it’s understood that prices are going to be raised once the promotion period is over and market share objectives are achieved. Example: mobile rates in India; housing loans, etc.
Economy pricing: no-frills price. Margins are wafer thin; overheads like marketing and advertising costs are very low. Targets the mass market and high market share. Example: Friendly wash detergents; Nirma; local tea producers.
Skimming strategy: high price is charged for a product till such time as competitors allow after which prices are often dropped. the thought is to recover maximum money before the merchandise or segment attracts more competitors who will lower profits for all concerned. Example: the earliest prices for mobile phones, VCRs and other electronic items where a couple of players ruled attracted lower cost Asian players.
A business can use a spread of pricing strategies when selling a product or service. to work out the foremost effective pricing strategy for a corporation , senior executives got to first identify the company’s pricing position, pricing segment, pricing capability and their competitive pricing reaction strategy. 
Pricing strategies determine the worth companies set for his or her products. the worth are often set to maximise profitability for every unit sold or from the market overall. It also can be wont to defend an existing market from new entrants, to extend market share within a market or to enter a replacement market. Pricing strategies can bring both competitive advantages and drawbacks to its firm and sometimes dictate the success or failure of a business; thus, it’s crucial to settle on the proper strategy.
Models of pricing
Method of pricing during which all costs are recovered. the worth of the merchandise includes the variable cost of every item plus a proportionate amount of the fixed costs.
Contribution margin-based pricing
Main article: Contribution margin-based pricing
Contribution margin-based pricing maximizes the profit derived from a private product, supported the difference between the product’s price and variable costs (the product’s contribution margin per unit), and on one’s assumptions regarding the connection between the product’s price and therefore the number of units which will be sold at that price. The product’s contribution to total firm profit (i.e. to operating income) is maximized when a price is chosen that maximizes the following:
(contribution margin per unit) × (number of units sold)
In cost-plus pricing, a corporation first determines its break-even price for the merchandise . this is often done by calculating all the prices involved within the production like raw materials utilized in its transportation etc., marketing and distribution of the merchandise . Then a markup is about for every unit, supported the profit the corporate must make, its sales objectives and therefore the price it believes customers can pay . for instance , if the corporate needs a 15 percent margin of profit and therefore the break-even price is $2.59, the worth are going to be set at $3.05 ($2.59 / (1-15%)).
Cost plus pricing
Main article: Cost-plus pricing
Cost plus pricing may be a cost-based method for setting the costs of products and services. Under this approach, the direct material cost, direct labor cost, and overhead costs for a product are added up and added to a markup percentage (to create a profit margin) so as to derive the worth of the merchandise. More read pricing strategy
Creaming or skimming
Main article: Price skimming
Price skimming occurs when goods are priced higher in order that fewer sales are needed to interrupt even. Selling a product at a high price, sacrificing high sales to realize a high profit is therefore “skimming” the market. Skimming is typically employed to reimburse the value of investment of the first research into the product: commonly utilized in electronic markets when a replacement range, like DVD players, are firstly sold at a high price. This strategy is usually wont to target “early adopters” of a product or service. Early adopters generally have a comparatively lower cost sensitivity—this are often attributed to: their need for the merchandise outweighing their got to economize; a greater understanding of the product’s value; or just having a better income .
This strategy is used just for a limited duration to recover most of the investment made to create the merchandise . to realize further market share, a seller must use other pricing tactics like economy or penetration. This method can have some setbacks because it could leave the merchandise at a high price against the competition.
Method of pricing where the vendor offers a minimum of three products, and where two of them have an identical or equal price. the 2 products with the similar prices should be the foremost expensive ones, and one among the 2 should be less attractive than the opposite . This strategy will make people compare the choices with similar prices; as a result, sales of the more attractive high-priced item will increase.
Differential pricing occurs when firms set various prices for an equivalent product counting on their consumer’s portfolio, geographic areas, demographic segments and therefore the intensity of competition within the region. 
A sort of deceptive pricing strategy that sells a product at the upper of two prices communicated to the buyer on, accompanying, or promoting the merchandise .
Main article: Freemium
Freemium may be a revenue model that works by offering a product or service freed from charge (typically digital offerings like software) while charging a premium for advanced features, functionality, or related products and services. The word “freemium” may be a portmanteau combining the 2 aspects of the business model: “free” and “premium”. it’s become a highly popular model, with notable successes.
Methods of services offered by the organization are regularly priced above competitors, but through promotions, advertisements, and or coupons, lower prices are offered on key items. The lower promotional prices designed to bring customers to the organization where the customer is obtainable the promotional product also because the regular higher priced products.
A retail pricing strategy where retail price is about at double the wholesale price. for instance , if a price of a product for a retailer is £100, then the sale price would be £200. during a competitive industry, it’s often not recommended to use keystone pricing as a pricing strategy thanks to its relatively high margin of profit and therefore the incontrovertible fact that other variables got to be taken under consideration .
Main article: Limit price
A limit price is that the price set by a monopolist to discourage economic entry into a market, and is against the law in many countries. The limit price is that the price that the entrant would face upon entering as long because the incumbent firm didn’t decrease output. The limit price is usually less than the typical cost of production or simply low enough to form entering not profitable. the number produced by the incumbent firm to act as a deterrent to entry is typically larger than would be optimal for a monopolist, but might still produce higher economic profits than would be earned under perfect competition.
The problem with limit pricing as a technique is that when the entrant has entered the market, the number used as a threat to discourage entry is not any longer the incumbent firm’s best response. this suggests that for limit pricing to be an efficient deterrent to entry, the threat must in how be made credible. how to realize this is often for the incumbent firm to constrain itself to supply a particular quantity whether entry occurs or not. An example of this is able to be if the firm signed a union contract to use a particular (high) level of labor for an extended period of your time. during this strategy price of the merchandise becomes the limit consistent with budget.
Main article: drawing card
A drawing card or leader may be a product sold at a coffee price (i.e. at cost or below cost) to stimulate other profitable sales. this is able to help the businesses to expand its market share as an entire . drawing card strategy is usually employed by retailers so as to steer the purchasers into buying products with higher marked-up prices to supply a rise in profits instead of purchasing the leader product which is sold at a lower cost. When a “featured brand” is priced to be sold at a lower cost, retailers tend to not sell large quantities of the drawing card products and also they have a tendency to get less quantities from the supplier also to stop loss for the firm. Supermarkets and restaurants are a superb example of retail firms that apply the strategy of a drawing cards.